A parasite is an organism which lives on or in another organism called the host. The parasite needs the host to live, but the host gains no benefit from having the parasite. The 3 main classes of parasite are protozoa (unicellular organisms), worms, and arthropods (insects and arachnids).
In comparison to acute bacterial or [...]
Spermatogenesis is the biological process whereby spermatogonia (the germ cell) develop into spermatozoa (the mature sperm cells). This process takes place in the seminiferous tubules of the testes; this is the starting point for spermatogenesis. Stem cells adjacent to the inner tubule wall divide, beginning at the walls and proceeding into the innermost part, [...]
Cryptorchidism is a disorder where either one or both testes fail to descend and are therefore absent from the scrotum. This usually occurs during foetal development when the testes begin their movement or descent from an abdominal position through the inguinal canal into the scrotum. Because the testes have failed to descend and therefore [...]
The oestrous cycle is the reproductive cycle found in most mammalian placental females whereby there are recurring periods when the female is fertile and sexually receptive (oestrus) interrupted by periods in which the female is not fertile and sexually receptive (anoestrus). Animals that have oestrous cycles reabsorb the endometrium (inner membrane of the mammalian uterus) if conception does not occur during that cycle. Read more…
Viruses are small particles which infect living cells; this makes them obligate intracellular parasites. They have no reproductive mechanisms of their own so instead must use host cells to replicate. There are two main threats for a virus; the host’s immunity and the death of the host. Both of which will typically prevent the [...]
Bacteria exist naturally on many biological surfaces, for example the skin or the lining of the intestines. Bacteria like these make up the body’s natural flora and have a range of symbiotic relationships; a good example would be the flora of the rumen in cattle which degrade food materials, providing energy for both the [...]
Any new-born animal is born from a sterile environment (e.g. a mother’s womb) into an environment which is filled with microbes and pathogens. Therefore it is important that the newly born animal is able to protect itself in its new, harsh environment. In most species (especially those with longer gestation periods) at birth, the [...]
The two major components of the adaptive immune system are known as cellular and humoral immunity. For an effective immune system these two branches of the adaptive immune system must interact. The main effector cells of these two systems are the T and B-lymphocytes.
T and B-lymphocytes both develop from a common progenitor in [...]
The complement system or complement cascade as it is also known is a complex system of multiple proteins involved in inflammation and immunological response. The components of the complement system can be found throughout the body in fluids, providing the body with a systemic means of protection. Antibodies depend on complement for many of [...]
Chronic inflammation is inflammation which has been of prolonged duration. It is the simultaneous occurrence of active inflammation, tissue destruction and attempts at repair.
Chronic inflammation can either follow on from acute inflammation or it can begin insidiously (a lack of symptoms, the patient is unaware of the onset of the disease with a [...]
An extensive list of the types of inflammation you may encounter and the part of the body which they affect. If you have any additions or notice any which are incorrect then please comment at the end of this post!
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Types of Inflammation
Adenitis – Inflammation of the [...]
Acute inflammation is the immediate response to an inflammatory agent (such as a pathogen or foreign material) or necrotic cells/tissue caused by cell injury and death. It undergoes many vascular changes in order to increase the amount of antibodies and leukocytes at the site of inflammation. The major contributing factors are:
Inflammation can be characterised by 5 main features (names in brackets are the Latin), these are:
Swelling (tumour) Heat (calor) Redness (rubor) Pain (dolor) Loss of function (functio laesa)
Inflammation is a protective response by the body towards cell injury. Cell injury may be due to; necrotic cells or tissue, the introduction of microbes [...]
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