Insulin resistance is a subnormal biological response of the body to insulin, i.e. a reduced reduced response to the presence of insulin. As a result insulin becomes less effective at reducing blood sugar, increased blood sugar levels can have an adverse impact on health.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) became a recognised clinical condition in 1934 when Norwegian physician Ivar Asbjørn Følling identified a link between mental retardation and elevated levels of phenylalanine (hyperphenylalaninemia). The elevated levels of phenylalanine (Phe) was a recognised consequence of a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH).
The simplistic predator-prey model dictates the only effect on prey numbers (by predation) is the direct level of predation which occurs i.e. the number of prey a predator consumes. However, prey can respond to the presence of predators in their vicinity by altering their morphological responses or their behaviour. This normally occurs as an attempt [...]
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