Colostrum is a nutrient and immunoglobulin rich fluid that is produced by the ewe shortly before parturition. Besides nutrients and immunoglobulins, colostrum also contains a wide variety of components essential to ensure the survival of a new-born lamb, it is critical to lamb survival – insufficient intake of colostrum is a major cause of neonatal fatalities.
Colostrum requires a lot of investment, energy-wise by the ewe, so if she gives birth to multiple offspring, it can be very demanding to keep up with the amount of colostrum required by her lambs. For maximum efficacy, new born lambs must consume the required amount of colostrum (around 1L) within the first 18 hours of life, putting even more pressure on the ewe.
The immune system has become adapted to ensure that ‘self’ cells are not subject to an immune attack. The body is able to do this because tolerance is developed towards self-cells, should this tolerance be broken down by some means, the host becomes subject to autoimmune attacks which can be potentially damaging.
A tumour is a swelling of part of the body caused by abnormal cell growth, this occurs when the normal cell division process becomes unregulated and cells proliferate uncontrolled. This results in cloned cells of the original defective cell, leading to a neoplasm – a new growth of tissue in the body that is [...]
A parasite is an organism which lives on or in another organism called the host. The parasite needs the host to live, but the host gains no benefit from having the parasite. The 3 main classes of parasite are protozoa (unicellular organisms), worms, and arthropods (insects and arachnids).
In comparison to acute bacterial or [...]
Viruses are small particles which infect living cells; this makes them obligate intracellular parasites. They have no reproductive mechanisms of their own so instead must use host cells to replicate. There are two main threats for a virus; the host’s immunity and the death of the host. Both of which will typically prevent the [...]
Bacteria exist naturally on many biological surfaces, for example the skin or the lining of the intestines. Bacteria like these make up the body’s natural flora and have a range of symbiotic relationships; a good example would be the flora of the rumen in cattle which degrade food materials, providing energy for both the [...]
Any new-born animal is born from a sterile environment (e.g. a mother’s womb) into an environment which is filled with microbes and pathogens. Therefore it is important that the newly born animal is able to protect itself in its new, harsh environment. In most species (especially those with longer gestation periods) at birth, the [...]
The two major components of the adaptive immune system are known as cellular and humoral immunity. For an effective immune system these two branches of the adaptive immune system must interact. The main effector cells of these two systems are the T and B-lymphocytes.
T and B-lymphocytes both develop from a common progenitor in [...]
The complement system or complement cascade as it is also known is a complex system of multiple proteins involved in inflammation and immunological response. The components of the complement system can be found throughout the body in fluids, providing the body with a systemic means of protection. Antibodies depend on complement for many of [...]
Chronic inflammation is inflammation which has been of prolonged duration. It is the simultaneous occurrence of active inflammation, tissue destruction and attempts at repair.
Chronic inflammation can either follow on from acute inflammation or it can begin insidiously (a lack of symptoms, the patient is unaware of the onset of the disease with a [...]
An extensive list of the types of inflammation you may encounter and the part of the body which they affect. If you have any additions or notice any which are incorrect then please comment at the end of this post!
This was brought to you by www.jameswatts.co.uk
Types of Inflammation
Adenitis – Inflammation of the [...]
Acute inflammation is the immediate response to an inflammatory agent (such as a pathogen or foreign material) or necrotic cells/tissue caused by cell injury and death. It undergoes many vascular changes in order to increase the amount of antibodies and leukocytes at the site of inflammation. The major contributing factors are:
Inflammation can be characterised by 5 main features (names in brackets are the Latin), these are:
Swelling (tumour) Heat (calor) Redness (rubor) Pain (dolor) Loss of function (functio laesa)
Inflammation is a protective response by the body towards cell injury. Cell injury may be due to; necrotic cells or tissue, the introduction of microbes [...]
Leukocytes – (White Blood Cells)
Leukocytes can be classified as accordingly:
Cell Type Abundance (%) Diameter (µm)
Neutrophils 60-70 12-15
Eosinophils 2-4 12-15
Basophils 0-1 12-15
Lymphocytes 20-30 6-18
Monocytes 3-8 12-20
(Cells in red are agranular, they are agranulocytes. Cells in blue are granular, they are granulocytes)
Leukocytes leave blood capillaries by passing between [...]
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