Johne’s disease is a contagious, bacterial disease that is responsible for considerable financial losses in infected livestock.
It isn’t just the financial costs that need to be considered, Johne’s disease also imposes welfare issues on infected animals and there are growing concerns over implications to public health.
Johne’s disease is caused by bacteria that are [...]
Mud fever is a predominant winter/early spring disease of horses. With proper care you can help to prevent mud fever. See this infographic for more information and what products you should be using on your horse. For more information, follow @CarrDayMartin on twitter or on Facebook
Virulence is the ability of a microorganism to produce disease. Virulence depends on the number of infecting bacteria, their route of entry into the body, the response of the host immune system and any characteristics specific to that bacteria.
M. haemolytica is responsible for causing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a bacterial disease which causes pneumonia and inflammation of the lung membranes and Bordetella bronchiseptica is an evolutionary progenitor of B. pertussis and is one of the organisms responsible for causing kennel cough in dogs.
The generic purpose of an antibiotic is to prevent the growth and/or survival of invading organisms whilst causing minimal damage and toxicity to the host. The typical mechanism of antibiotic action involves targeting specific enzymes or substrates of the invading bacterial species.
Staphylococcus is a gram positive, cocci shaped, genus of bacteria. Observed under a microscope will reveal they exist in microscopic ‘grape-like’ clusters. One species of staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, can grow at temperature ranges of 15-45ºC and at a relatively high NaCl concentration of 15%.
Much like humans, bacteria are subject to evolution. Evolution occurs through beneficial mutations in the DNA. Because bacteria have much shorter generation times than humans, the process of evolution occurs much more rapidly. An example of how bacteria evolve through mutation is point mutation.
Point mutation is the random mutation of DNA nucleotides [...]
A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins are able to bind to the sialic acid, N-Acetylneuraminic acid found in the cell membrane of red blood cells.
Only a tiny amount of bacteria found on Earth are actually associated with disease. The number associated with human disease is as low as 0.001%. Bacteria are extremely small when compared to humans, for example the width of an average bacterium is often no greater than 1.5μm.
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