A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins are able to bind to the sialic acid, N-Acetylneuraminic acid found in the cell membrane of red blood cells.
The immune system has become adapted to ensure that ‘self’ cells are not subject to an immune attack. The body is able to do this because tolerance is developed towards self-cells, should this tolerance be broken down by some means, the host becomes subject to autoimmune attacks which can be potentially damaging.
A parasite is an organism which lives on or in another organism called the host. The parasite needs the host to live, but the host gains no benefit from having the parasite. The 3 main classes of parasite are protozoa (unicellular organisms), worms, and arthropods (insects and arachnids).
In comparison to acute bacterial or [...]
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