Extra pair paternity occurs when the female of a partner of a pair bonded couple engages in extra pair copulations (i.e. copulation with a male other than the bonded male) and as a result gives birth to offspring whose father is not the bonded male.
Respiration is the process of obtaining sufficient oxygen from an organism’s environment to support its cellular metabolic requirements. Respiration is not just the mechanical process of breathing – the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. It is also the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy).
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