Glaucoma is an eye disease which can affect both humans, dogs and many other mammals. It is characterised by optic nerve damage and loss of peripheral vision. In the vast majority of Glaucoma conditions the nerve damage is caused by rising pressure within the eye, so called intraocular pressure (IOP).
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) involves the formation of nodules on the prostate that compress the urethral canal. BPH is a natural consequence of aging that affects older dogs. Entire male dogs (i.e. not castrated) over the age of 5 have an 80% chance of suffering from BPH to some extent.
Cognition is defined as; the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. As we age our cognitive ability declines naturally, however some individuals may experience a rate of decline much greater than expected. This is known as cognitive dysfunction.
Cognitive dysfunction is apparent in a number of species, including; humans, dogs and cats. In dogs, canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) can be responsible for alterations in normal behaviour, for example, the dog may be less active or show changes in their social interactions with human family members.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition which is observed in both humans and animals. It is a progressive degenerative disorder, typically affecting load bearing joints such as the hips, knees or elbows. Joint structure, function and integrity slowly deteriorate as the condition worsens.
Polygynous mammalian mating systems are quite diverse, varying in how females and territories are guarded, as well as the uses of resources amongst other things. Only around 5% of mating systems in mammals are monogamous.
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